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This is the story of the Odyssey in PowerPoint Format.
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Odysseus- Ruler of Ithaca
In the tenth year of the Trojan War, the Greeks tricked the enemy into bringing a colossal wooden horse within the walls of Troy. The Trojans had no idea that Greek soldiers were hidden inside, under the command of Odysseus. That night they emerged and opened the city gates to the Greek army. Troy was destroyed. Now it was time for Odysseus and the other Greeks to return to their kingdoms across the sea. Here begins the tale of the Odyssey, as sung by the blind minstrel Homer.
Date of Birth:
c. 850 BC, Ionia, Turkey [then part of Greece]
Date of Death:
c. 800 BC, Ancient Greece.
Homer is the name traditionally ascribed to the brilliant Greek bard
Genre: Oral Epic Poem
first literary achievements of most ancient cultures, strictly speaking, usually are not literary at all, because they originate in oral rather than written form.
Recited in a culture without an alphabet or a system of writing (the tools with which a literate culture preserves information), oral literature emerges in verse, simply because the devices associated with poetry -- rhyme, rhythmic stress, repetition -- facilitate memory.
The original function of oral literature is primarily to commemorate, and its original form is a performance, an enactment by a professional poet, a minstrel or bard (in Anglo-Saxon England, a scop; in West Africa, a griot). Thus oral poetry gives the recorded events great immediacy. Each repetition of oral poetry -- out loud, in front of an audience -- recreates its subject matter, involving the listeners as if the events described were happening anew.
PURCHASE TO READ
The gods seize the opportunity to make Odysseus and his crew the pawns in their games; forcing Odysseus to take unbelievable detours that add years to his journey home.
Poseidon is the God of the Sea and of earthquakes. The brother of Zeus, he controls the oceans, storms and can summon earthquakes. Known for his moodiness, to make him angry was never a good thing for, he often sought revenge on anyone who angered him.
Responsible for Odysseus' 10 year delay at sea.
His son is Polyphêmos, the cyclops blinded by Odysseus
Odysseus leaves Ithaca for Troy
Leaves Troy for home
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“We ended up among the Laestrygonians, giants cannibals who bombarded our fleet with boulders and gobbled down our shipmates. The few survivors put in at the island of the enchantress Circe. My men were entertained by her and then, with a wave of her wand, turned into swine.”
Circe, the witch-goddess and daughter of Hêlios, lives in her palace on the island of Aiaia. She waits for lost or hungry sailors to come, then drugs them and they turns to animals.
Turns Odysseus' men to swine
Hosts Odysseus and his men in her home for a year, caring for them with food, drink, and shelter
Circe told Odysseus that to get home I must travel to the land of Death."
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"At the furthest edge of Ocean's stream is the land to which all journey when they die. Here their spirits endure a fleshless existence. They can't even talk unless re-animated with blood. Accordingly, I did as Circe instructed, bleeding a sacrificed lamb into a pit. Tiresias, the blind prophet who had accompanied us to Troy, was the soul I had to talk to. So I held all the other shades at bay with my sword until he had drunk from the pit. He gave me warnings about my journey home and told me what I must do to ensure a happy death when my time came. I met the shades of many famous women and heroes, including Achilles, best fighter of the Greeks at Troy. Book 11
The sirens are said to have the body of a bird, and the head of a woman. They sing beautiful songs that lure sailors to their deaths on the rocky island shore.
Odysseus is tied to the mast of the ship while his crew puts bees wax in their ears so that they are not affected by the Siren's song.
“At sea once more we had to pass the Sirens, whose sweet singing lures sailors to their doom. I had stopped up the ears of my crew with wax, and I alone listened while lashed to the mast, powerless to steer toward shipwreck.”
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is a monster that lives near Skylla and three times a day, sucks down water forming a deadly whirlpool that is responsible for the deaths of many sailors.
Odysseus' men sail by Charybdis,avoiding being sucked under only to
face Skylla in her high cave.
Skylla is a monster with six heads who dwells high in the cliff face. She has six heads and eats sailors who try and go past her cave.
After the crew sails past Charybdis, they come to the high cliff walls of Skylla. As they sail by, Skylla grabs six of Odysseus' crew.
Later, Odysseus with Athena's help, swims unseen by her cave.
He washes up on Calypso’s island.
A large and rowdy mob of suitors who have overrun Odysseus’s palace and pillaged his land continue to court his wife, Penelope. She has remained faithful to Odysseus.
Meanwhile, Odysseus' wife, Penelope, worries that her husband is dead and is forced to fight off suitors who want to claim his kingdom.
Telemachus, Odysseus’s son
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Telemachus consults King Nestor, who led a contingent in the Trojan War when he was in his nineties. Nestor tells what he knows of the Greeks' return from Troy: "It started out badly because of Athena's anger. Half the army, your father included, stayed behind at Troy to try to appease her. The rest of us made it home safely -- all except Menelaus, who was blown off course to Egypt, where he remained for seven years. Seek advice from Menelaus. I'll lend you a chariot to travel to his kingdom." Book 3
Menelaus tells what he learned of Odysseus while stranded in Egypt after the war. He was advised by a goddess to disguise himself and three members of his crew in seal pelts and then pounce on the Old Man of the Sea. If they could hold him down while he transformed himself into various animals and shapes, he would send them on their homeward way and give news of their companions. Menelaus did as instructed and was informed that Odysseus was presently being held against his will by the nymph
Calypso, whose home island is Ogygia, is daughter of Tethys. Although sad that Odysseus is leaving, she is able to create a wind to help speed him home.
When he again washes up on her island, Calypso detains Odysseus for seven years
"Oh Goddess of Inspiration, help me sing of wily Odysseus, that master of schemes!"
So Homer begins his epic, though the hero himself is still offstage. We are treated to a glimpse of life among the supreme gods on Mount Olympus. Urged on by Athena, the goddess of war, they decide that Odysseus has been marooned too long on the island of the nymph Calypso.
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Zeus, the King of the Gods, sends his messenger Hermes skimming over the waves on magic sandals to Calypso's island. Though the goddess isn't happy about it, she agrees to let Odysseus go. But the raft on which he sets sail is destroyed by his enemy, the god Poseidon, who lashes the sea into a storm with his trident. Odysseus barely escapes with his life and washes ashore days later, half-drowned. He staggers into an olive thicket and falls asleep.
Odysseus awakens to the sound of maidens laughing. Princess Nausica of the Phaeacians has come down to the riverside to wash her wedding dress. Now she and her handmaids are frolicking after the chore. Odysseus approaches as a suppliant, and Nausicaa is kind enough to instruct him how to get the king's help in returning to his home. Odysseus follows her into town. Book 6
Athena intervenes to save Odysseus from Poseidon’s wrath, and the beleaguered king lands at Scheria, home of the Phaeacians. Nausicaa, the Phaeacian princess, shows him to the royal palace, and Odysseus receives a warm welcome from the king and queen. When he identifies himself as Odysseus, his hosts, who have heard of his exploits at Troy, are stunned. They promise to give him safe passage to Ithaca, but first they beg to hear the story of his adventures.
PURCHASE TO READ
The next day is declared a holiday in honor of the guest, whose name the king still does not know. An athletic competition is held, with foot races, wrestling and the discus. Odysseus is invited to join in but begs off, prompting someone to suggest that he lacks the skills. Angered, he takes up a discus and throws it with such violence that everyone drops to the ground. That night at a banquet, as the court bard entertains with songs of the Trojan War, Odysseus is heard sobbing. "Enough!" shouts the king. "Our friend finds this song displeasing. Won't you tell us your name, stranger, and where you hail from?"
Odysseus spends the night describing the fantastic chain of events leading up to his arrival on Calypso’s island.
He recounts his trip to the Land of the Lotus Eaters, his battle with Polyphemus the Cyclops, his love affair with the witch-goddess Circe, his temptation by the deadly Sirens, his journey into Hades to consult the prophet Tiresias, and his fight with the sea monster Scylla. Book 9
When he finishes his story, the Phaeacians return Odysseus to Ithaca.
Penelope organizes an archery contest the following day and promises to marry any man who can string Odysseus’s great bow and fire an arrow through a row of twelve axes—a feat that only Odysseus has ever been able to accomplish
Taking his place!
Odysseus steps up to the bow and, with little effort, fires an arrow through all twelve axes. He then turns the bow on the suitors. He and Telemachus, assisted by a few faithful servants, kill every last suitor.