In this lesson, students define the Eight Amendment and use the definition to understand the Supreme Court case Roper v Simmons. First, students use the graphic organizer to record the definition of excessive bail and the criteria that the Supreme Court uses to decide whether or not a punishment is cruel and unusual. A link to a Google slide is provided that can be used for this portion of the lesson. Next, a link is provided for students to read a short summary of the case, Roper v Simmons, which relates to the juvenile death penalty. Finally, there is a choice of two ways to complete the formative assessment portion of the lesson. In both options, students are given quotations from the Supreme Court decision, and they are tasked with identifying which criteria from the definition aligns most closely with each quote. Students can either record their answers on the worksheet next to the quote, or on a graphic organizer, which is provided in this download. This activity can be used for a lesson on civics, government, the Bill of Rights, and part of a US History course. Common core aligned, primary source analysis, relatable content, and built in assessment! Lesson instructions and external links provided.