Unification of Italy
Risorgimento – the Italian word for “resurgence.” The nationalist movement; its goals were unification and liberation of Italy.
Carbonari – One of the groups of secret societies of nationalists.
Giuseppe Mazzini – One of the most famous Carbonari who called for all Italian patriots to join his Young Italy movement. Insisted that “neither pope nor king,” but rather a republic, should rule Italy.
Young Italy Movement – Dedicated to spreading the ideas of the Risorgimento.
King Victor Emmanuel II – King of the constitutional monarchy in Sardinia. He was not sympathetic to the liberals, but he did want to expand Sardinian territory.
Camillo Benso di Cavour – A republican and an Italian patriot. Cavour and the Sardinian parliament supported the goals of the liberals. Wanted Sardinia to lead the way in uniting and industrializing Italy.
Napoleon III – French emperor who wanted to increase French influence. Met with Cavour to plan their strategy against Austria (France wanted to gain Austrian-Italian territory, while Cavour wanted Italy to reclaim the land).
Giuseppe Garibaldi – In the Southern half of the Italian Peninsula, together with the island of Sicily, made up the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Giuseppe was a man devoted to Italian freedom who led the way for the nationalists in the south. Recruited an army of more than 1000 soldiers. “Expedition of the Thousand” invaded and captured Sicily. Emmanuel II felt too threatened by Garibaldi’s popularity to give him the title of governor of Naples.