Quizzes assess students' knowledge of each vocab word's definition, part of speech, and use in context. WORD LIST BELOW:
1. Supercilious: (adjective) showing arrogant superiority (synonyms: condescending, contemptuous, cocky, uppity, insolent – related to effrontery, patronizing, snobby)
2. Abstruse: (adjective) difficult to penetrate or understand (synonyms: enigmatic, esoteric, perplexing, complex, recondite – it’s Greek to me)
3. Waning: (verb) decreasing in strength or intensity; shrinking (synonyms: abating, lessening, ebbing)
4. Indictment: (noun) a formal accusation of wrongdoing; a judgment or attack (synonym: incrimination, charge, citation, blame)
5. Hedonist: (noun) a person who believes the pursuit of pleasure is the most important thing in life; pleasure seeker (synonyms: libertine, sensualist, profligate, thrill-seeker)
6. Conformist: (noun) a person who abides by or conforms to acceptable behavior and practices; one of the herd (synonyms: bourgeois, conventionalist)
7. Effrontery: (noun) rudeness or boldness; being up front (synonyms: impertinence, gall, insolence, presumption, brashness, audacity – the “audacity/brashness of hope”)
8. Spurious: (adjective) sounds plausible/possible but it’s false or fake (synonyms: specious, phony, unreal, pretended, illegitimate)
9. Dossier: (noun) a collection of documents about a person, event or subject
10. Hubris: (noun) excessive pride (synonyms: haughtiness, conceit, superiority, pomposity, egoism, arrogance)
11. Atrophy: (verb) to waste away or weaken from lack of use; like the word waning, it means to decrease in strength or effectiveness. (synonyms: degeneration, decline, deterioration). Also a (noun) The process of atrophying or having atrophied: “The atrophy of her calf made it difficult to sprint.”
12. Hovel: (noun) a small shelter (synonyms: shanty)
13. Congenital: (adjective) present at birth (“gen” root means birth as in genetics or genital) (synonyms: indigenous, native, inherent, ingrained, innate, intrinsic, latent)
14. Loquacious: (adjective) talkative (synonyms: chatty, verbose)
15. Anachronism: (noun) ought to be from another time period, especially as from an earlier time; misplaced in time (“chron” root means time as in chronic or chronological) (related words: antidiluvian (from a time before the flood), antiquated, outdated)
16. Cretin: (noun) an unintelligent person (synonyms: imbecile, fool, moron)
17. Debauchery: (noun) moral corruption; excessive indulgence in sensual pleasures; a hedonist, by definition, is given/prone to debauchery (synonyms: dissoluteness, corruption, profligacy, dissipated/indulging in pleasure, similar to hedonist)
18. Covetous: (adjective) wanting or desiring what is not yours (synonyms: avaricious; related word: ravenous)
19. Bellowed: (verb) hollered; a deep roar of a person or animal typically in pain or anger (synonyms: barked, clamored, yelped)
20. Flagrant: (adjective) extremely obvious; conspicuously (easily seen as) outrageous or bad (synonyms: flashy, conspicuous). The reporter said, “in a flagrant display of either anti-patriotism, Colin Kaepernick refused to stand for the national anthem to protest for #blacklivesmatter.”
21. Maternal: (adjective) motherly; of or related to a mother (related words: parental, protective)
22. Condescendingly: (adverb) talking down to; someone who is supercilious is condescending (synonyms: superciliously, patronizingly, disdainfully, arrogantly)
23. Nihilism: (noun) total rejection of established laws and institutions; similar to existentialism, nihilism denies the existence of absolute truth; extreme skepticism and possible destructiveness toward the world or self; literally, also the name of the principles of a Russian revolutionary group active in the latter half of the 19th century holding that existing social and political institutions must be destroyed in order to clear the way for a new state of society and employing extreme measures like terrorism and assassination to achieve this (synonyms: lawlessness, anarchy)
24. Caressed: (verb) gently stroked (synonyms: grazed)
25. Grappling: (verb) struggling (synonyms: contending, tackling, tussling, scuffling, confronting, dealing with)
26. Billowed: (verb) spread out like a balloon (synonyms: ballooned, bulged, rippled, puffed up)
27. Hemorrhage: (noun) bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel; internal or external bleeding (synonyms: oozing, gushing)
28. Sloth: (noun) laziness (synonyms: idleness, sluggishness, lackadaisicalness, lethargy, inertia, listlessness)
29. Olfactories: (noun) glands responsible for smelling
30. Elude: (verb) avoid or escape (synonyms: dodge, circumvent, flee, eschew, ditch or thwart)
31. Allusion: (noun) a reference to another literary work (related words: hint, a kind of symbolism)
32. Superfluous: (adjective) being more than what is sufficient or required (synonyms: expendable, gratuitous, excessive, exorbitant, nonessential, extravagant, unnecessary)
33. Quizzically: (adverb) questioning, puzzling (synonyms: inquiringly)
34. Expansive: (adjective) capable of expanding; comprehensive or extensive; big and growing, (synonyms: extensive, far reaching, wide-ranging, voluminous, large or big)
35. Provocative: (adjective) tending to stimulate, incite, promote, irritate, or vex. (synonyms: provoking, goading, inspirational, pushing)
36. Inciting: (adjective) a similar meaning to provocative. Tending to stir, encourage, urge on, aggravate or prompt to get a reaction (synonyms: provocative, stimulating). Also a (verb): The action of prompting a reaction from someone or something. Donald Trump sometimes says incendiary things because he enjoys inciting a reaction in his audience.
37. Deranged: (adjective) crazy (synonyms: disordered, disarranged, insane)
38. Compulsion: (noun) the state or condition of being compelled or forced to do something, often out of obligation to another person; an intense need (synonyms: coercion, demand). Ignatius’s flatulence is a result of his obsessive compulsion to eat superfluous sweets that his mother buys to spoil him.
39. Intrusion: (noun) unwanted invasion or meddling (synonyms: imposition, meddling, overstepping one’s bounds, invasion). The intrusion of Mrs. Reilly into Ignatius’s room incites Ignatius, who promptly insults his mother.
40. Besieged: (verb) to lay siege to; taken, under attack; to crowd; to surround (synonyms: assailed). In ancient biblical times, tribes besieged cities by cutting off food supplies and water until the people within the city starved, waned, and were forced to surrender.
41. Fecund: (adjective) fertile, producing a lot in vegetation; very productive or creative intellectually) (synonyms: fruitful, prolific)
42. Nemesis: (noun) an inescapable agent of someone’s downfall (synonyms: opponent, rival, arch-enemy)
43. Inconsequential: (adjective) of no importance (synonyms: insignificant, trivial, inconsequent, irrelevant)
44. Impaled: (verb) stabbed or pierced with a sharp stick. Did you know that in ancient Israel, according to biblical records, a snake was impaled on a staff and when the people were sick they looked up at the staff and were miraculously healed? Sick? Get a snake stick.
45. Precariously: (adverb) dependent on circumstances beyond one’s control; dangerous, on the edge (synonyms: unstable, perilous, risky, uncertain, insecure). The Olympic gymnast balanced precariously on the beam.
46. Penury: (noun) abject/utterly hopeless poverty. Malcolm Gladwell might assert that those who live in penury in America’s inner cities often have little opportunity for success or advancement because he often takes a social determinist perspective.
47. Obscenity: (noun) something that is absurd, indecent, or gross (synonyms: lewdness, filthiness, vulgarity, cursing). The student encouraged a friend, “There’s no need for obscenities. Use positive language.”
48. Auxiliary: (noun) extra, not the most necessary part of something; giving support or used as a substitute in case of need (synonym: additional, supplementary, reserve).
49. Prospective: (adjective) possible, hopeful, potential, likely, expected (synonyms: eventual, awaited, coming). Seniors’ prospective plans for next year include college, internships, and careers.
50. Quandary: (noun) a problem; a situation that is difficult to solve (synonyms: dilemma, predicament, puzzle)
51. Tranquility: (noun) peacefulness, calmness (synonyms: serenity, stillness)
52. Impotent: (adjective) the opposite of omnipotent (all-powerful), impotent means unpowerful; it can sometimes mean that a person is unable to have children (synonym: sterile, inadequate, incapable, enfeebled, ineffectual, inept, infecund)
53. Capital: (noun) a type of good or resource to be consumed or owned; wealth in the form of money or assets (i.e. house, car, money, a business, machinery, etc.
54. Capitalism: (noun) an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. An individual owns the capital. This system promotes competition between businesses to compete for the capital (related words: competition, free market, free enterprise)
55. Communism: (noun) a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social class, money and the state. The entire community commonly owns the capital. Wealth is distributed not according to merit but according to ability and need. Karl Marx is credited with developing this system. (related words: Marxism, socialism, Leninism, Bolshevism, state ownership)
56. Scrutinized: (verb) carefully observed often in the interest of finding fault; critically examined (synonyms: inspected, considered, dissected)
57. Dissipated: (adjective) Similar to the words “debauchery” and “hedonist,” dissipated means indulging in or characterized by excessive devotion to pleasure (synonyms: debauchery, hedonist). Also a (verb) it can mean to spend wastefully or extravagantly, to squander or deplete, to dispel or disperse. Last year, Erinn spent a few hundred dollars on Dutch Bro’s each month; she has since resolved to quit coffee and practice frugality so she does not end up in penury.
58. Laconically: (adverb) briefly (synonyms: tersely, concisely, succinctly, crisply, curtly)
59. Cacophony: (noun) loud, disagreeable sounds (“phon” root means sound as in phone) (synonyms: noise, discord, harshness)
60. Impromptu: (adjective) little preparation or forethought (synonyms: spontaneous, unscripted, unpremeditated)
61. Didactically: (adverb) Ignatius speaks this way; lecturing or teaching (sometimes in an arrogant way) (synonyms: pedantically)
62. Subjugate: (verb) to bring under complete control or subjection, to conquer or master (synonyms: to rule, coerce, vanquish, enslave)
63. Conversing: (verb) talking (synonyms: chitchat, discourse, speak)
64. Altercation: (noun) an argument (synonyms: quarrel)
65. Protruding: (adjective) sticking out, traversing boundaries (synonyms: bulge, jut out). Also a (verb) to project, thrust forward.
66. Coherent: (adjective) clear, makes sense (synonyms: articulate, intelligible)
67. Disclosing: (verb) unveiling, sharing and secret (synonyms: exhibiting, divulging, revealing)
68. Vying: (adjective) competing (synonyms: contending). Also a (verb) past tense of “to vie” or to compete.
69. Mammoth: (adjective) extremely large, elephant-like or resembling the extinct genus Mammuthus / Wooly Mammoth (synonyms: enormous)
70. Accumulated: (verb) past tense of “to pile up, or grow in #” (synonyms: hoarded, compiled). Also an (adjective) meaning “piled up.” The accumulated notes and jottings of a madman littered Ignatius’s room.
71. Heralded: (adjective) well awaited. Also a (verb) meaning announced or proclaimed; to give tidings or news of; ushered in (related words: foreshadow, portend). The clairvoyant prophet John the Baptist, able to see the future, heralded the coming of Christ. The herald angels also announced his arrival.
72. Monumental: (adjective) related to mammoth, monumental can be “large.” It also means exceptionally great, relating to a monument, memorable or heroic (synonyms: awe-inspiring, awesome)
73. Writhing: (adjective) squirming (synonyms: wriggling). Also a (verb) past tense of “writhe.” After lunch, the student was writhing in his chair because he wanted to go outside.
74. Detachment: (noun) not really caring or investing; freedom from prejudice or partiality because you do not have a bias (divorcement, disengagement, aloofness)
75. Strident: (adjective) Related to cacophony, the word strident means loud and grating
76. Expired: (adjective) dead, done, terminated, ended. The expired vegetables were moldy. Also a (verb): The vegetables expired in his book-bag.
77. Behemoth: (adjective) large (synonyms: mammoth)
78. Reverently: (adverb) respectfully
79. Venerate: (verb) worship or show respect (synonyms: regard, idolize)
80. Excommunicated: (verb) kicked out of the faith community
81. Brazen: (adjective) brash, bold, loud, showy (similar to effrontery, which is brazenness or brashness)
82. Shrewd: (adjective) wise (synonyms: discerning, sagacious). Sagacity, shrewdness is wisdom.
83. Assailing: (verb) Similar to besieging, it means attacking vigorously and violently (synonyms: besieging, assaulting, mastering)
84. Adulation: (noun) Similar to veneration and reverence, adulation means admiration; excessive devotion to someone sometimes in the form of servile flattery
85. Hostile: (adjective) angry or violent; not friendly, warm or generous (synonyms: inhospitable, antagonistic)
86. Denunciation: (noun) outcry against, public censure or condemnation (synonyms: fulmination)
87. Refuse: (noun) Not to be confused with the homonym* “to refuse”: she refused the ticket. As a noun, refuse is “trash.” * A homonym is spelled the same, sounds the same, but has a different meaning. In this case, there’s a slight difference in how you accent the word.
88. Ephemeral: (adjective) short lived; passing away quickly (synonyms: evanescent, fleeting, transitory, transient, temporary, impermanent)
89. Insidious: (adjective) spreading in an injurious/bad way; treacherous; seemingly harmless but actually will have a grave effect
90. Deleterious: (adjective) Similar to insidious, deleterious means harmful; injurious to health (synonyms: insidious, pernicious, destructive, detrimental)
91. Sallow: (adjective) unhealthy looking; of a sickly yellowish or light brownish color (related words: jaundiced, dull, wan, ashen, pasty, anemic). Heroine is deleterious to your health and if you try it you will lose your lovely youth and appear sallow.
92. Ludicrous: (adjective) inviting ridicule. Ignatius is ludicrous, a preposterous modern Don Quixote.
93. Stagnant: (adjective) without changing, not growing (synonyms: dormant, putrid, inert). The stagnant water made her sick. She did not apply herself at work and her career stagnated.
94. Assiduous: (adjective) constant and unremitting; industrious and persevering; attentive (synonyms: diligent, indefatigable – not disposed to fatigue, studious, sedulous, eager Beaver)
95. Amicable: (adjective) characterized by showing goodwill, friendly and peaceable (synonyms: amiable, cordial, courteous, benevolent)
96. Auspicious: (adjective) promising success; opportune or favorable (synonyms: prosperous, propitious) The herald angels announced auspicious news. Malcolm Gladwell scrutinizes the auspicious circumstances of time and place that converge together to create an outlier.
97. Homogenous: (adjective) Homo means “same.” Homogenous means of similar elements; of the same kind, alike (synonym: uniform, similar).
98. Heterogeneous: (adjective) Heterogeneous is an antonym for homogenous. It means mixed, motley, of dissimilar elements or constituents (related words: a composite or amalgamate, mixture, disparate)
99. Obsequious: (adjective) obedient and dutiful; servile complaisance or deference; fawning (synonym: deferential)
100. Recapitulate: (verb) to review as a brief summary; to summarize (synonyms: recap, reiterate, restate, recount, summarize)