WWII a brief overview
I. How did dictatorships develop in Europe and Asia in the 1930s?
A. The Rise of Dictatorships
1. Benito Mussolini- Italian Ruler in 1930s
a. Organized Fascist Party
b. Often spoke on balcony
c. Called himself “Duce”- means leader or chief
2. Adolf Hitler- Germany
a. Fuehrer leader
3. Hitherto- Japan
a. “Son of Heaven”
4. Dictatorship – one person or a small group of people completely in control of the government and people of the nation
1. _____________ Million Japanese
2. _____________ Million Germans
3. _____________ Italians
4. What did their leaders tell them?
5. What was promised by the dictators?
6. What did Mussolini tell his people?
7. What was the Japanese dream?
8. What did Hitler want?
II. American Isolationism
A. Supported by the people
B. FDR- believed spread of dictatorship not go unchecked
C. Americans worked for peace
1. What are some reasons why the US should concentrate on solving their own problems?
2. What was the pledge that America made with Kellogg Brand Pact?
III. Early Japanese aggression
A. Top military officers wanted to make an overseas empire
1. Needed raw materials to support developing industries
2. Need more land for its people
B. 1930’s China was fighting for its people
1. Made China weak
C. 1931 Japan conquered Manchuria
a. Military force
D. 1937 Japan moved to central China
a. Chiang Kai Shek= Chinese leader (Nationalist)
1. What did the United Nations tell the Japanese? What was the response?
2. What did Japan conquer by 1932
3. What happened in 1937
4. How did the US help the Chinese?
5. What was the “real” war?
IV. Mussolini invades Ethiopia
A. Japan’s aggression encourages Italy to take what it wanted
B. Mussolini built up an Italian army and air force
C. 1935 Mussolini selected Ethiopia
D. Haile Selassie was emperor of Ethiopia
a. No one tried to help
E. 1939 took over Albania
V. United States Neutrality
A. Three Neutrality laws
1. Forbade shipment of arms to any warring nation
2. Declared that American’s travel at own risk to any ship belonging to a nation at war
E. 1936- Second Act
1. Made it illegal to grant loans to nations involved in a war
1. Gave President power to stop the shipment of goods other than arms to a nation at war
VI. Hitler= Dictator of Germany
A. Promise to return Germany to power and unite German speaking people of Europe
B. Police State- A Nation in which special police stand ready to enforce the commands of a dictator
C. Spoke against democracy, communism, Christianity, and Judaism
1. Totalitarian government- Government that totally controls the lives of the people
D. Concentration camps- Nazi police began to arrest Jews and herd them into these terrible prisons
VII. Hitler’s secret Plan
A. Germany built an army
B. Ordered factories to make weapons/ military supplies
C. Built air force
D. Aided by Mussolini
VIII. Early aggression
A. 1935 demanded land he lost from war
1. Violated Treaty of Versailles= sent troops to Rhineland
B. 1938 Sent troops to Austria
C. Threatened to invade Czechoslovakia
IX. Munich Pact
a. Chamberlain agreed Hitler could take Sudetenland without risking war, but he must promise not to take more (appeasement)
b. 1939 Troops in Czechoslovakia
1. What was Hitler’s dream?
2. Why did Hitler want to take over Czechoslovakia?
3. What position did Chamberlain reverse?
4. Why did Chamberlain appease Hitler?
5. Who stood with Czechoslovakia?
How did the U.S become involved in WWII?
I. Outbreak of World War II
A. Blitzkrieg- lightning war
B. Great Britain and France side with Poland
1. Where did German strength lie according to Hitler?
2. Why did Britain and France get forced into War?
II. Changes in US Neutrality
A. U.S stays neutral
B. Roosevelt asked congress to sell weapons to Britain and France
C. Neutrality Act of 1939
D. 1940 Hitler went to Denmark and Norway
III. Fall of France
A. 1940 Hitler took Netherlands and Belgium
B. Attacked France, France had to surrender
C. Britain only one left
D. Winston Churchill= New Prime Minister of Great Britain
1. How did Hitler Humiliate France?
IV. The Battle of Britain
a. Attack on Britain by air
b. RAF- Royal Air Force
1. Radar- could spot Nazi planes in night or day
c. 1941- Hitler realized that he couldn’t take Britain by air
V. Slave Labor and mass Murder
a. 1941- Hitler took over Hungry and Romania
b. Germans began to round up Jews
c. Nazi’s killed over 6 million – Holocaust
VI. Germany turns East
a. Hitler wants to take Soviet Union & Middle East
b. Germany needed natural resources to keep its armies moving
c. Troops almost made to Moscow before harsh winter set in
VII. Americans aid short of war
a. Roosevelt & US worried
b. Lend Lease Act- countries did not have to pay money, could use property, equipment or service
c. Atlantic Charter
1. Meeting with Britain to end aggression
2. Within 1 month 15 otter nations sign
VIII. War in Pacific
a. As US more involved in War, worried about Japan
b. Attack on Pearl Harbor
1. Sunday December 7, 1941 Surprise attack at Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)
2. Most ships at sea- killed over 2,000
3. December 8 1941- US declares War
4. December 9, 1941- Roosevelt announces new foreign policy
1. Why did Japanese video tape the attack?
2. What pact did Japan sign?
3. What did Roosevelt inform congress of?
IX. Japanese Americans
a. People thought there could be Japanese spies in the United States
b. Government moved almost 110,000 Japanese to internment/ detention camps
How did the Allies bring an end to the war in Europe?
I. Planning the War
A. Allies Austria, New Zealand, Canada
B. Axis- Germany, Italy, Japan
C. Goal= Stop Hitler
II. Raising an Army
a. Women part of war effort
b. Minorities fought
c. Separate Units for blacks and whites
d. Factories turned into factories made for war
1. Thousands Mexicans came to US for jobs
1. Limits on what can and cannot buy
2. Inflation- rise in prices
III. Hitler’s “Fortress Europe”
a. Soviets stop Germans from gaining more territory
b. Eisenhower- led troops to North Africa to defeat Germans and Italians
1. Also invaded Italy
2. September 1943 Italians switch sides to fight with allies