This is a PowerPoint lesson specifically for helping students understand what claims are, what claims do, and how they can write claims for their own essays. It starts with introducing the concept through basic ideas, and then builds into test-prep activities. There is opportunity for direct instruction, guided practice, discussion, and independent practice.
I teach in Florida so some of these slides are tailored specifically towards the FSA writing component, but in general this lesson is Common Core standards based,
The end of the lesson gives instruction on how students can create a claims study flashcard, so you could very easily do this lesson, have them study, and then give them a quick quiz during the next class.
Depending on how long your classes typically are, you could do this lesson in 1-3 days. It will take about an hour to two hours to get through, depending on how much time your students need for the independent practice and how much background knowledge they already have about claims.
I hope this helps your students understand claims better, it certainly helped mine!