Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT

Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
Writing and Research - MLA Style Review PPT
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MLA Style Review

Parenthetical Citations

Use of Authors' Names

If the author's name is mentioned in the text

Author’s Name in Text

If the author's name is not mentioned in the text

Author’s Name in Reference

If there is more than one work by the same author

If two authors have the same last name

If there are two or three authors

If there are four or more authors

Two or More Authors - Names in Text

Two or More Authors - Names in Reference

If the source has a corporate author

Corporate Author

If no author is identified

Works with No Author

Example of a parenthetical reference

Placement of Citations

Treatment of Electronic Sources

An Entire Online Source

Part of an Online Work

No Page Numbers

Work Listed by Title

Works Cited List

When do I use an ellipsis?

Quotation with an Ellipsis in the Middle and a Parenthetical Reference

Quotation with an Ellipsis at the End Followed by a Parenthetical Reference

DETAILS-----BELOW

Parenthetical Citations

STANDARD 1: STUDENTS WILL USE WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH APPROPRIATE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES AND AUDIENCES.

Parenthetical Citations

In MLA style, in-text citations, called parenthetical citations, are used to document any external sources used within a document (unless the material cited is considered general knowledge).

Parenthetical Citations

The parenthetical citations direct readers to the full bibliographic citations listed in the Works Cited, located at the end of the document.

Use of Authors' Names

Always mention the author's name—either in the text itself or in the parenthetical citation—unless no author is provided.

If the author's name is mentioned in the text

If the author's name is used in the text introducing the source material, then cite the page number(s) in parentheses:

Branscomb argues that "it's a good idea to lurk (i.e., read all the messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure that you don't break any of the rules of netiquette" (7) when joining a listserv.

Author’s Name in Text

Tannen has argued this point (178-85).

Only Daiches has seen this relation (2: 776-77).

It may be true, as Robertson maintains, that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance” (136).

If the author's name is not mentioned in the text

If the author's name is not used in the sentence introducing the source material, then include the author's last name in the parenthetical citation before the page number(s). Note that no comma appears between the author's name and the page number(s).

Example

The modern world requires both the ability to concentrate on one thing and the ability to attend to more than one thing at a time: "Ideally, each individual would cultivate a repertoire of styles of attention, appropriate to different situations, and would learn how to embed activities and types of attention one within another" (Bateson 97).

Author’s Name in Reference

This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85).

Only one scholar has seen this relation (Daiches 2:776-77).

It may be true that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance” (Robertson 136).

If there is more than one work by the same author

If a document uses more than one work by an individual author, include an abbreviated form of the title of the work in addition to the author's name and relevant page number(s). Separate the author's name and the title with a comma:

Example

Hypertextuality makes text borderless as it "redefines not only beginning and endings of the text but also its borders—its sides, as it were" (Landow, Hypertext 2.0 79).

If two authors have the same last name

If the document uses two sources by authors with the same last name, include the author's first name in the text or the parenthetical citation:

Tom Peters talks about a company that facilitates employees' renewal by shutting down its factory for several hours per week while teams work through readings on current business topics (57).

If there are two or three authors

If a source has two or three authors, place all of the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:

A team can be defined as "a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable" (Katzenbach and Smith 45).

If there are four or more authors

If a source has four or more authors, include the first author's last name followed by et al. (Latin for and others), either in the text or in the parenthetical citation. You can also name all of the authors:

Example

Cogdill et al. argue that "making backchannel overtly available for study would require making its presence and content visible and its content persist, affecting the nature of the backchannel and raising social and ethical issues" (109).

Two or More Authors - Names in Text

Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (210-15), hold the opposite point of view.  

**Note: When there are three or more authors, use the first author's last name and et al.

Others, like Jakobson et al. (210-15), hold the opposite opinion.

Two or More Authors - Names in Reference

Others hold the opposite point of view (Jakobson and Waugh 210-15).  

Three or more authors:

Others hold the opposite point of view (Jakobson et al. 210-15).  

If the source has a corporate author

If a source has a corporate author, include the author's name and the page(s). If the corporate author's name is long, it should be included in the text rather than the parentheses:

Example

According to the Centre for Development and Population Activities, interest in gender roles and responsibilities over the past decade has been "driven by the realization that women often do not benefit from development activities and in some cases become even poorer and more marginalized" (3).

Corporate Author

The federal government has funded research concerning consumer protection and consumer transactions with online pharmacies (Food and Drug Administration 125).

If no author is identified

If a source does not include an author's name, substitute for the author's name the title or an abbreviated title in the text or parenthetical citation. Italicize the title if the source is a book; if the source is an article, use quotation marks:

Example

The use of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems has grown substantially over the past five years as companies attempt to adapt to customer needs and to improve their profitability ("Making CRM Work").

Works with No Author

Several critics of the concept of the transparent society ask if a large society would be able to handle the complete loss of privacy ("Surveillance Society" 115).

Example of a parenthetical reference

Medieval Europe was a place both of “raids, pillages, slavery, and extortion” and of “traveling merchants, monetary exchange, towns if not cities, and active markets in grain” (Townsend 10).

Explanation

The parenthetical reference indicates that the quotes came from page 10 of a work by Townsend. The reader should be able to locate this work in the list of works cited:

Townsend, Robert M. The Medieval Village Economy. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993. Print.

Placement of Citations

Place a citation as close to the quoted or paraphrased material as possible without disrupting the sentence.

Placement of Citations

When material from one source and the same page numbers is used throughout a paragraph, use one citation at the end of the paragraph rather than a citation at the end of each sentence.

Placement of Citations

Parenthetical citations usually appear after the final quotation mark and before the period. An exception occurs, however, in quotations of four or more lines since these quotatons are presented as block quotes: that is, they are indented and use no quotation marks. In such cases, the parenthetical citation goes after the period, as the following example shows:

Treatment of Electronic Sources

In-text citations for electronic sources are treated in most respects as print texts are. The only real difference occurs because electronic texts do not have page numbers (unless the source is in PDF format or otherwise mimics a print version of the source).

Treatment of Electronic Sources

Sometimes, numbered paragraphs appear on an electronic source. In such cases, use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. The paragraph number should appear in your citation following the abbreviation para.

Treatment of Electronic Sources

If an electronic source includes section numbers or screen numbers, use those numbers after the word section or screen. Most often, however, the source will have no paragraph, section, or screen numbers. In such instances, include no number in the parentheses, as shown next:

Treatment of Electronic Sources

The Collaborative Virtual Workspace (CVW) prototype is being used by

the Defense Department for crisis management (Davidson and Deus).

An Entire Online Source

It is usually preferable to include in the text, rather than a parenthetical reference, the name of the person (e.g., author, editor, etc.) that begins the corresponding entry in the works cited list:

Example

Joan Merrian reported on a parody of Shakespeare performed by the Muppets.

Works Cited List:

Merrian, Joan. "Spinoff: Monsterpiece Theatre." Online posting. 30 Apr. 1994. Shaksper: The Global  Electronic Shakespeare Conf. 27 Aug. 1998. Web.13 Nov. 2009.    

Part of an Online Work

When quoting or paraphrasing from an online source, use the name of the author in the parenthetical reference with NO page numbers, unless the online document is paginated (such as an article from a database).

No Page Numbers

In terms of the upcoming college basketball tournament, "being competitive with each other is a must to have a true rivalry. You can't have a rivalry if one team dominates the series" (Katz).

Works Cited List:

Katz, Andy. "Rivalry Week ... Any Way You Look At It." ESPN. 29 Jan. 2002.Print.

Work Listed by Title

In an online source that is not paginated (has no page numbers) and has no author, use the title or an abbreviation of the title that refers to your works cited list.

In fresco painting, "the pigments are completely fused with a damp plaster ground to become an integral part of the wall surface" ("Fresco").

Works Cited List

"Fresco." Britannica Online. Vers. 97.1.1. Mar. 1997. Encyclopedia Britannica.Web. 29 Mar. 1997.

When do I use an ellipsis?

Whenever you wish to omit a word, phrase, a sentence, or more from a quoted passage, you should be concerned about two things: fairness to the author and the grammatical integrity of your writing. Examples:

If the original work reads

Medical thinking, trapped in the theory of astral influenced, stressed air as the communicator of disease, ignoring sanitation or visible carriers. (Barbara W. Tuchman, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous Fourteenth Century [1978; New York: Ballantine, 1979] 101-02)

Quotation with an Ellipsis in the Middle and a Parenthetical Reference

In surveying various responses to plagues in the Middle Ages, Barbara W. Tuchman writes, "Medial thinking [. . .] stressed air as the communicator of disease, ignoring sanitation or visible carriers" (101-02).

Quotation with an Ellipsis at the End Followed by a Parenthetical Reference

In surveying various responses to plagues in the Middle Ages, Barbara W. Tuchman writes, "Medial thinking, trapped in the theory of astral influences, stressed air as the communicator of disease [. . .]" (101-02).

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

For an ellipsis within a sentence, use three periods with a space before each and a space after the last ( . . . ).

Documentation Source

These guidelines are taken from two books by Joseph Gibaldi: The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Seventh Edition, New York: Modern Language Association, 2009) and the MLA Style Guide to Scholarly Publishing (Second Edition, New York: Modern Language Association, 1998).

Hebrew

While Jewish monotheism rejected the polytheistic concept of a specific deity responsible for death on earth (as was popular, for example, among the Canaanites), remnants of the polytheistic influence is evident in biblical descriptions of God's host of angel servants in general, and of the angel of death in particular. The "Angel of the Lord" who smites human beings is called the destroyer and is described as standing between earth and heaven, with a drawn sword in his hand. This angel, however, is a temporary messenger, and even the verses where death is personified do not point to a permanent angel responsible for terminating life on earth.

In post-biblical times the concept of an Angel of Death as an independent being emerged. The Angel of Death came to be associated with not only those episodes of death, cruelty, and wretchedness described in the Bible — such as the plagues in Egypt — but also with the dreadful ogres and demons which make their way into the oral tradition (as in does into the ancient Near Eastern and medieval European traditions). This Angel of Death is an active supernatural being who acts independently of God's will; he fights, harms and destroys man at his own initiative.

South Africa

The Moon, it is said, sent once an Insect to Men, saying, "Go thou to Men, and tell them, 'As I die, and dying live, so ye shall also die, and dying live.'"

The Insect started with the message, but whilst on his way was overtaken by the Hare, who asked: "On what errand art thou bound? "The Insect answered: "I am sent by the Moon to Men, to tell them that as she dies, and dying lives, they also shall die, and dying live." The Hare said, "As thou art an awkward runner, let me go" (to take the message). With these words he ran off, and when he reached Men, he said, "I am sent by the Moon to tell you, 'As I die, and dying perish, in the same manner ye shall also die and come wholly to an end."

Then the Hare returned to the Moon, and told her what he had said to Men. The Moon reproached him angrily, saying, "Darest thou tell the people a thing which I have not said? With these words she took up a piece of wood, and struck him on the nose. Since that day the Hare's nose is slit.

Native American Legends

A person was dying. Then some people said: "Let it be that he lies outside for three days. Then he will get up and be a person again." Now there was one newly married man, the meadow-lark. He did not like the dead person lying near his house because the body smelled. He said: "We will take the dead one away and burn him." So the people were persuaded. They built a pile of wood, laid the body on it, and burned it. Thus the people of old times did, and so people die now and do not come back.

The Dinka Say that Woman is the Origin of Death

The artist alludes to a well-known story from Dinka mythology. In ancient times, the earth and the sky were so close that they were linked by a single rope; anyone who died could ascend the rope to be reborn. A woman pounding grain killed a bird, causing the bird’s mother to sever the rope in revenge, bringing true death into the world. At the same time, the bird cutting the rope also signifies the enduring hope for peace: in the midst of pain and privation visions of hope and regeneration endure.

African Mythology: Nyambe and the Origin of Death

Nyambe was the creator.

He had a wife, Nasilele, who wanted humans to die forever. But Nyambe wanted them to live again once they had died. Nyambe had a favored dog that, when it died, he wanted to restore to life. But his wife objected because, she said, the dog was a thief. Later, Nasilele's mother died. When she asked her husband to restore her mother to life, he refused, reminding her that she had been opposed to giving new life to his dog. But after a time he relented. As he was bringing the mother to life, Nasilele, because of her curiosity, interfered, and the mother stayed dead. They then discussed the issue of whether eternal life should be given to mankind, and Nyambe sent the chameleon with that message. But the hare arrived on earth first, and told men that once dead they would remain dead.

the Madagascar myth about the origin of death

One day God asked the 1st human couple, who then lived in heaven, what kind of death they wanted--that of the moon or that of the banana. The couple wondered what the difference was, so God explained: The banana puts forth shoots that take its place and the moon itself comes back to life.

The couple considered for a long time before they made their choice. If they chose to be childless, they would avoid death for themselves, but they would also be very lonely and would be forced to do all of the work by themselves and would not have anyone to work and strive for.

So they asked God for children, well aware of the consequences of their choice. And their request was granted.

Since that time, each human has spent only a short time on this earth.

The Origin of Death (Yauelmani Yokuts)

It was Coyote who brought it about that people die. He made it thus because our hands are not closed like his. He wanted our hands to be like his, but kondjodji (a lizard), said to him: 'No, they must have my hand.' He had five fingers and Coyote had only a fist. So now we have an open hand with five fingers. But then Coyote said: 'Well, then they will have to die.'

Maasai - Fables and Legends

The Origin of Death

In the beginning there was no death. This is the story of how death came into the world.

   There was once a man known as Leeyio who was the first man that Naiteru-kop brought to earth. Naiteru-Kop then called Leeyio and said to him: "When a man dies and you dispose of the corpse, you must remember to say, 'man die and come back again, moon die, and remain away'."

Many months elapsed before anyone died. When, in the end, a neighbor's child did die, Leeyio was summoned to dispose of the body. When he took the corpse outside, he made a mistake and said:

   "Moon die and come back again, man die and stay away." So after that no man survived death.

  A few more months elapsed, and Leeyio's own child went missing. So the father took the corpse outside and said: "Moon die and remain away, man die and come back again." On hearing this, Naiteru-kop said to Leeyio: "You are too late now for, through your own mistake, death was born the day when your neighbour's child died." So that is how death came about, and that is why up to this day when a man dies he does not return, but when the moon dies, it always comes back again.

 Many months elapsed before anyone died. When, in the end, a neighbour's child did die, Leeyio was summoned to dispose of the body. When he took the corpse outside, he made a mistake and said:

   "Moon die and come back again, man die and stay away." So after that no man survived death.

   A few more months elapsed, and Leeyio's own child went missing. So the father took the corpse outside and said: "Moon die and remain away, man die and come back again." On hearing this, Naiteru-kop said to Leeyio: "You are too late now for, through your own mistake, death was born the day when your neighbour's child died." So that is how death came about, and that is why up to this day when a man dies he does not return, but when the moon dies, it always comes back again.

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