When finding elapsed time, students can use mountains, hills, and plains to count the time. If they know the start time and the end time, they can put together the mountains, hills, or plains to calculate the time elapsed. These pieces can be cut out and moved around as needed. I would print a couple of copies so that students have more to choose from.
Six hills take up the same amount of space as one mountain so students can see that 60 minutes equals one hour.
This will work best if used with butcher paper. Students can write the start time or end time on the paper and then use the mountains, hills, and plains to calculate the time asked for.
The plains are just dashes so that they can see how many single minutes it takes. These will have to be drawn with a pencil or marker.
Once the students have the idea down, they can start writing the elapsed time line on paper by themselves to help with word problems.
***Perfect for integrating discussions about landforms!***